Oil Palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq) a perennial oil yielding palm with maximum oil potential of 18 t /of palm oil /ha /yr and achievable yield of 8 to 12 t oil /ha/ yr has brought about a revolution in the global vegetable oil economy over the years. With humble production of 1.2 million tons in 1960 it reached 49.0 million tons by 2017 occupying first position and pushing soya bean to second place. India introduced oil palm at the same time as Malaysia started its commercial plantations but remained at the bottom with the yields at poor levels . This book on Oil Palm gives a historical back ground of the crop in the world as also in India , Indian efforts in the development of oil palm , issues and strategies in promoting oil palm development in the country, and the guidelines in the cultivation of oil palm. This book will be a very good guide for growing oil palm successfully and will inspire all those who are interested in Oil Palm cultivation, processing, value addition, organic recycling and also providing eco-friendly environment.
2019, xxxviii+316p., figs., color phto., tbls., indx., 25cm
Foreword vii Preface ix 1. The Oil Palm 1 1.1. Importance of Oil Palm 1.2. Importance of Palm Oil 2. Global Vegetable Oil Scenario 7 2.1. Global Scenario 2.2. Indian Scenario of Vegetable Oils 3. Global Palm Oil Scenario 17 3.1. Harvested Area, Production and Productivity of Palm Oil 3.2. World Major Producers of Palm Oil 3.3. Major Countries Exporting and Importing Palm Oil 3.4. Palm Oil Production in the Asia-Pacific Region 3.5. Future Contribution from Palm Oil 3.6. Global Oil Palm Research 3.7. Oil Palm Research in India 4. Introduction of Oil Palm in India 45 4.1. Why Oil Palm in India? 4.2. Early Introduction of Oil Palm 4.3. Commercial Plantations of Oil Palm 4.4. Reports on Oil Palm Cultivation in India 4.5. Efforts made for Development of Irrigated Oil Palm 4.6. Reservations in Oil Palm Cultivation in India 4.7. Problems that have Affected the Area Development in Oil Palm 4.8. Steps Suggested to Sustain Oil Palm Development 4.9. Way Forward 4.10. To Sum Up 5. Climate and Soil Requirements 73 5.1. Climate 5.2. Soils 6. Origin, Habitat, Distribution and Botany of Oil Palm 93 6.1. Origin 6.2. Habitat 6.3. Distribution 6.4. Botany of Oil Palm 7. Crop Improvement 105 7.1. Oil Palm Breeding 7.2. Improvement Programme 7.3. Breeding Methods 8. Planting Material Production 115 8.1. Hybrid Seed Production 8.2. Clonal Propagation 8.3. Planting Materials 9. Establishment of Nurseries 133 9.1. Nursery Establishment 9.2. Types of Polybag Nurseries 9.3. Planting and After Care 9.4. Fertilizer Application 9.5. Seed and Seedling Handling 9.6. Advanced Nursery Techniques for Primary Nursery 9.7. Management of Flood Affected Oil Palm Nursery 10. Plantation Establishment and Management 151 10.1. Plantation Establishment 10.2. After Cultivation 10.3. Weed Management 10.4. Disaster Management 10.5. Oil Palm Cultivation in Wastelands 11. Water Management 179 11.1. Water Requirement and Water Use Efficiency 11.2. Quantity of Water 11.3. Water Deficiency and its Effects 11.4. Methods of Irrigation 11.5. Drainage Management 11.6. Moisture Conservation Methods 11.7. Water Harvesting 12. Nutrient Management 189 12.1. Nutrient Removal 12.2. Importance of Nutrients 12.3. Fertilizer Recommendations 12.4. Sources of Fertilizers 12.5. Methods of Application 12.6. Frequency of Fertilizer Application 12.7. Fertilizer Application Time 12.8. Soil and Leaf Analysis 12.9. Nutrient Deficiencies 12.10. Disorders 12.11. Yield Gap Analysis 13. Oil Palm Based Cropping/Farming Systems 215 13.1. Multiple Cropping 13.2. Intercropping in Oil Palm 13.3. Mixed Cropping 13.4. Mixed Farming 13.5. Cover Crops 14. Plant Protection 225 14.1. Insect Management 14.2. Disease Management 15. Harvesting, Yield and Handling 241 15.1. Degree of Ripeness 15.2. Bunch Ripeness 15.3. Pre-harvest and Harvest 15.4. The Ripening Process 15.5. Grading Procedures 15.6. Bunch Classifications 15.7. Grading Methods 15.8. Yield 15.9. Cost of Cultivation 15.10. Labour Productivity and Employment Opportunity 16. Processing of Oil Palm Fruits 269 16.1. Milling Technology 16.2. Steps Involved in Processing 16.3. Oil Storage 16.4. Nut Recovery 16.5. Kernel Oil Extraction 16.6. Refining 16.7. Recent Advances in Milling Technology 17. Food and Non-Food Uses of Palm Oil for Nutrition and Health 279 17.1. Food Uses 17.2. Non Food Uses 17.3. Palm Oil for Nutrition 18. Waste Utilization and Environment 287 18.1. Types of Wastes 18.2. Systems Approach for Zero Waste and Zero Discharge in Palm Oil Mill 18.3. Management of Environmental Issues 18.4. Oil Palm and Carbon Sequestration References 305 Index 311 Color Plates
Dr P. Rethinam obtained his graduation and post-graduation in agriculture from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. He started his career as Research Assistant in 1963, Assistant Lecturer and Assistant Professor up to 1976 at TNAU, Coimbatore and then joined Agricultural Research Service in ICAR in 1976. He became Project Coordinator, (Palms) in 1982 and was responsible for research coordination and management of palms. He was selected as Assistant Director General (Plantation Crops), ICAR, New Delhi in 1988 and coordinated the research on Plantation Crops, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops and Betel vine. He introduced the concept of irrigated Oil Palm as small holders crop. He was founder Director of the National Research Centre for Oil Palm at Pedavegi, A.P. and developed infrastructural facilities in a short time. Dr Rethinam was selected as the Chairman, Coconut Development Board, Kochi, Ministry of Agriculture, and Government of India in the year 2001. He has published 215 articles, co-edited two volumes of books on Recent Advances in Plantation Crops, edited 37 books and many technical bulletins, APCC Proceedings, COCOTECH Proceedings, Noni Search Proceedings and reports, DVDs, CDs of APCC intellectual database, etc. Dr K. L. Chadha obtained Ph.D (Hort) from IARI, New Delhi. Occupying key positions e.g. Horticulture Commissioner (GoI) and DDG, Hort (ICAR) he steered R&D of horticulture for five decades. During this period, he established a number of Institutes and National Research Centres. He has made significant contributions to the commercialisation of oilpalm in India. He chaired the first working group on potentialities of oilpalm cultivation constituted by Ministry of Agriculture in 1986 and a national committee to review the progress in 2007. These reports suggested potential areas of oilpalm cultivation in 13 states. Most of the recommendations of his group were accepted, and resulted in setting up of large scale demonstrations to motivate farmers with he being the Secretary of the committee constituted by PMO to overview these. He led teams to 8 important oilpalm growing countries in the world to select the best source of planting material. His proposal to set up a NRC on oilpalm was approved by Govt. of India, which was later established at Pedavegi by ICAR. He has written/edited/contributed several books, research papers and popular articles. He received 24 awards, including Padma Shri. He is currently President of the Horticultural Society of India, New Delhi.