This book provides glimpses into the recent ‘Mechanisms of toxicity in fishes’ and it is first such holistic and explicable attempt, incorporating a comprehensive update account of the heavy metals as water pollutants and almost every essential fundamental aspect about their chronic toxicity in fishes. The book has 2 parts and each is well defined to its contents in total 14 chapters, such as ‘Scope of water pollution and the important definitions; Industrial and non-industrial water pollutants; Metal epidemiology; Occurrence of heavy metals in water bodies; Metal uptake and their accumulation in fish tissues; Health risks of metals in fishes; Symptomatic morphological and behavioral aberrations; Metal induced biochemical changes in fish tissues; Hematological and Immunological alterations; Enzymatic alterations; Stress proteins and a specific chapter on ‘The Oxidative stress and the Arsenic toxicity’. This book will essentially be of much importance to the fish scientists, ecologists, and the agricultural scientists working in various state universities and ICAR institutes.
2019, x+391p., tbls., indx., 25 cm
Preface vii 1. Water Pollution: Scopes and Definitions 1 1. Facts about Public Awareness; 2. Water Pollution and the Fisheries; References 2. Major Industrial and Non-Industrial Water Contaminants 11 1. Industrial Wastes and the Chemicals; 2. Metals and Metal Compounds as the Xenobiotics; 3. Trace Metals; 4. Non-Industrial City Wastes; 5. Water Acidification; 6. Oil Spills and Oil Residues; References 3. Epidemiological Significance of Heavy Metals 29 1. Metal Toxicity in Humans; a. Aluminium (Al); b. Arsenic (As); c. Cadmium (Cd); d. Chromium (Cr); e. Copper (Cu); f. Lead (Pb); g. Mercury (Hg); h. Nickel (Ni); i. Zinc (Zn); j. Antimony (Sb) and Barium (Be); References. 4. Heavy Metal Contaminations in River Waters and Sediments 65 1. Metal Contamination in Rivers Waters; 2. Metal Accumulation in River Sediments; 3. Metal Contamination in Estuaries; 4. Metal Contamination in Coastal Waters; References 5. Biological Concentration and Metal Availability to Fishes 89 1. Biological Concentration Factor (BCF); 2. Metal Availability and the Water Conditions; 3. Metal Absorption; 4. Metal Depuration; References 6. Metal Uptake and their Distribution in Fish Tissues 115 1. Mercury; 2. Arsenic; 3. Cadmium; 4. Copper; 5. Lead; 6. Zinc; 7. Metal Accumulations and Inter-metallic Interactions; 8. Metal Accumulation in other Aquatic Organisms; References 7. Health Risks of Heavy Metals in Fishes 153 1. General Metal Toxicity Parameters; 2. General Metal Exposures in Fishes; i. Mercury; ii. Arsenic; 3. Cadmium; 4. Chromium; 5. Copper; 6. Lead; 7. Zinc; 8. Cumulative Metal Effects; 9. Metallothionein; 3. LC50 Values of Metals for Fishes; References. 8. Metal Toxicity Effects on Fish Behavior 181 1. Fish Orientation and Swimming Movements; 2. Respiratory Activities and Oxygen Consumption; 3. Fish Avoidance to Metals; 4. Toxicity Effects on Fish Avoidance to Predators; 5. Toxicity Effects on Fish Reproductive Behavior; 6. Toxicity Effects on Impulse Transmission; References 9. Metal Toxicity and the Tissue Biochemicals 207 1. General Adaptive Syndrome (GAS); 2. General Metabolic Effects; 3. Tissue Biochemicals; i. Hyper- and Hypoglycemic Fish Responses; ii. Proteolysis and Depletion in Tissue Proteins; iii. Changes in Cholesterol and other Lipid Levels; iv. Metal Effects in Combination; 4. Conclusion; References. 10. Hematological Aberrations 245 1. Blood Cells and Hemoglobin; 2. Anemia and Inhibition of the Enzyme ALAD; 3. Changes in Leucocyte Counts; 4. Erythrocyte Morphological Anomalies; 5. Metal Effects on Oxygen Consumption; References 11. Immunological Disorders 275 1. Immune Functions; 2. Immunological Observations; References 12. Metal Toxicity and the Tissue Enzyme Aberrations 291 1. Digestive Enzymes; 2. Metabolic Enzymes; i. Dehydrogenases; ii. Transaminases; iv. Phosphatases; References. 13. Synthesis of Stress Proteins and Metallothionein 325 1. Definition and Scope of Stress Proteins; 2. Hsp’s Characteristics; 3. Environmental Stress and the Hsps; 4. Applications of Stress Proteins as Diagnostics; 5. Stress70 and cpn60 Family; 6. Stress Hormones and the Hsps; 7. Activation of Heat Shock Transcription Factor and Hsp Induction; 8. Metal Effects in Fishes and the Hsps; 9. Metallothionin (MTs); References 14. Oxidative Stress and Arsenic Toxicity 357 1. Oxidative Stress; 2. Lipid Peroxidation; 3. Antioxidants; 4. Oxidative Stress and Fish Protection; 5. Reduction-Oxidation (Redox) Sensitive Transcriptions and Gene Expression; 6. Arsenic Toxicity and Oxygen Stress; 7. Methylation and Metabolism of Arsenic; 8. Protection against Arsenic Toxicity; References Index 387
Dr Krishan Lal Jain (PhD), a renowned Professor of Zoology and is retired from the department of Zoology and Aquaculture of ‘The CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar’ in Haryana (India). He has been grossly associated with various aspects of water pollution and fish toxicology during his valuable last about 10 years of active service. He did his BSc (1969) from The Punjab University Chandigarh, MSc (1971) from Punjabi University Patiala, and PhD (1986) from CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, as a Senior Research Fellowship of ICAR, New Delhi. Dr. Jain has a total teaching and research experience of about 37 yrs for teaching UG and PG classes and has guided many M Sc and Ph D students. Dr. Jain had completed many research projects on various aspects of ‘Environmental and Applied Biology’ and had more than 100 research publications in his credit on Bee Biology, Bee Ecology and Toxicology, Acarology and Fish Toxicology. His research capabilities are substantiated by his excellent work on Bee Biology, Bee Ecology and Behavior and Bee toxicology. In 1986, in recognition of their unit work, The ICAR had honored the whole unit for their work on ‘The study of Ecological and Biological Aspects of Some Crop Specific Pollinators’ with the most prestigious Agricultural Sciences Award ‘The Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Memorial Prize’. He had been further honored many a times with appreciation letters from various hon’ble Vice Chancellors of CCS HAU and The USDA Department of USA for his pioneer research work on bees. His major work on fish toxicology included symptomatic, behavioral, biochemical, hematological, enzymological and some histo-pathological studies in fishes chronically exposed to pesticide and heavy metal toxicants in water. Dr Jain also worked as The Head of the Zoology and Aquaculture Department in The CCS HAU, Hisar from Oct 2003 to Oct 2007. Keeping in view the sincerity and the achievements of Dr Jain as Head of The Department, the then Vice Chancellor had also honored him with a strong worded appreciation letter in 2006.