Mangroves-the threatened coastal intertidal halophytic flora play very dominant and important roles in the estuarine mouths, sea-land interphase areas of deltaic ecosystems of both the tropical and sub-tropical zones, especially in the highly populated South-East Asian countries, several Pacific Islands and Australian Coasts. Inspite of their important roles and immense ecological impacts, these mangroves and the mangrove ecosystems have faced both biotic and abiotic threat and these highly productive mangrove zones have been cleared or the mangrove ecosystems have also been degraded very repidly during the last three centuries. Alongwith these, the Mangroves and Mangrove Ecosystems of the World are also highlighted in brief. Excavation of brackishwater fish and shrimp farms in these coastal areas, resulting rapid degradation of these mangals of the Sundarbans and other biotic components of these estuarine environment. All these threatened/endangered flora and fauna need urgent protection and conservation measures and accordingly several important National and International projects have now been undertaken for the conservation of these mangrove ecosystem of the Sundarband. In these perspective, the Mangroves and the mangrove associates of the Indian Sundarbans are described in relation to their morphometric features, anatomical characteristics and also with their distinct halophytic adaptations. Besides their structural and habitat distinctness, their economic importances, distributions in the different mangrove habitats of the Indian sub-continent and the mangals of both Old and New World tropics and sub-tropics are also highlighted based on the pioneer works on the Indian and World mangroves. Adequately illustrated book with important photographs, maps, tables and sketches will be useful to scientist, ecologist and policy makers.
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Contents Part1: Global Status; Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: Geographical position of the Sundarbans, West Bengain the lower Ganga Delta, Geology and land types of the lower Ganga Delta: the Sundarbans; Chapter 3: The major factors governing the mangrove ecosystem; Environmental or climatic factors, Temperature, Rainfall, Humid climate, Wind velocity, Destruction of mangrove forests, Edaphic and geomorphological factors, Geological factors, Biological factors; Chapter 4: Mangrove environment and mangrove distribution; Chapter 5: Sundarbans biosphere reserveits aims and objectives; Chapter 6: Mangroves and mangrove ecosystem A brief review; Chapter 7: Mangroves and the distribution of mangroves in the world; Definition of mangroves, World distribution of mangroves, Origin and geological status of mangroves, Mangrove evolution and palynogical studies, The early mention or reports of the mangroves, Salinity tolerance and productivity of mangroves, Osmoregulation mechanism and salt balancing in mangroves, Salt concentration and growth of the mangroves, Salt exclusion, Salt extrusion, Salt accumulation; Chapter 7: Characteristics of the mangrove flora, Protective and economic roles played by these mangroves, Protective and economic roles played by these mangroves; Chapter 8: Mangrove ecosystems, mangroves and mangrove associated flora in the indian subcontinent; Mangroves in the west coast of india, Mangroves of the maharashtra coast, Mangroves of the state of goa, Mangroves of the karnataka coast, Mangroves of the kerala coast, Mangroves of the lakshadweep islands (Atolls), Mangroves in the east coast of india, Mangroves of the tamil nadu coast, Mangroves of the andhra pradesh coast, Mangroves of the orissa coast, Mangroves of the andaman & nicobar islands, conservation strategies for islands; Chapter 9: Present status and stresses on the mangroves and mangrove ecosystem of the indian Sundarbans; Problems of the Sundarbans mangals, Protective and economic roles played by these mangroves; Chapter 10: Present status and stresses on the mangroves and mangrove ecosystem of the bangladesh Sundarbans; Ecological succession of the bangladesh mangals, Mangrove forest utilization of bangladesh, Problems of the Sundarbans of bangladesh, Fish and fisheries in the mangals of the bangladesh Sundarbans, Wildlife and recreation, Research activities of the Sundarbans in bangladesh, Coastal afforestation in the bangladesh; Chapter 11: Comparative studies of the mangroves of the Sundarbans of bangladesh and indian territories; Chapter 12: Present status of management practices, visavis, mangal destruction in the Sundarbans in indian part; Chapter 13: Early history of the Sundarbans, the past and present, Botanical activities on the mangroves in india; Chapter 14: Root architectures and intertidal adaptations of mangroves in the Sundarbans of west bengal, india; Pneumatophores, Knee roots, Stilt or proop roots, Root buttresses, Pneumatothodes, Flanges, Su